The Correct Way to Do a Bibliography

An important part of every research paper is the Bibliography. Since this is a research paper, where you need to go over lots of sources in order to ensure that your work has merit, you also need to make sure that your audience knows that you really did your job. Writing one is generally not hard at all because it is simply listing the sources of the information that you gathered. However, you have to consider the Bibliography format that you need to use because there are various different writing formats out there like MLA Style and APA Style.

The first thing that you should do is to make a kind of draft on your sources early on so that it will be a lot easier when you make the Bibliography at the end of your research. At this time, you don’t need to think about the Bibliography format that you will be using. Just get the required details that you will need including but not limited to the following details about the sources: title of source like journal, book, article, etc; author/s; publication data like the name, date, and address; the page number/s; and also the URL and content for data gathered from the internet.

Here is detailed information on how to properly use the abovementioned details into a Bibliography.

  • Title – When writing down this information, ensure that you take all the necessary data. For instance, if there is a subtitle included then, add that also. If your source is an article/s or chapters in a book or journal, write down the title of the journal or book, as well as, the title of the article and the chapter.
  • Author – The format to use when noting authors’ names is last name first then the first name. Do not include any name labels like Mr., Ms., Sir, Ma’am, Dr., etc. However, you can include Sr., Jr., II, or III, as needed. If no author is provided, then don’t incorporate this part.
  • Page Number/s – This part of a Bibliography is only included when your source is a chapter/s of a book or articles taken from a journal.
  • Publication Address – This data is only gathered when your source is a book. Take down notes on the city, province, and state of the publication. However, if the city is a popular place, you can do without the province and the state.
  • Name of Publication – This is also only applicable if your source is a book. Just ensure that you get the name of the publisher and not the printing press. In some cases, the publisher and the printing company are the same.
  • Publication Date – In case of book sources, simply get the latest copyright year. For journals or publications that are issued quarterly, get the year and the month in write it as: (month, year). For works issued daily or weekly, get the complete issuance date.
  • URL – Get the whole URL as provided.
  • Date When Accessed – This is very important for data taken from the net because information found in the web can change regularly.

If you get to have a problem making your Bibliography either as MLA Style or APA Style, you can easily find a Bibliography example in the internet or done in books. With an actual Bibliography example, it will be less difficult to do a proper Bibliography.

 

 

APA Format Example: APA Title Page, Abstract and Reference Page

One distinguishing factor that sets the APA style apart from other styles is the inclusion of the APA title page and abstract page.Additionally, the list of APA citation entries located at the end of your paper is labeled as references.

The APA title page is located at the beginning of your document, and it contains the title of your paper, your complete name, and the title of your school, college, or institutional affiliation. The page header, or running head, is aligned to the left margin, while the page number is aligned to the right. Both must be typed at the top of the page. For example:

 

Narcissism and the Literary Libido                                                                                                  1

 

Narcissism and the Literary Libido: Rhetoric

Text, and Subjectivity

Marshall W. Alcorn

George Washington University

 

            The next page is your abstract, and between 150 and 250 words it consists of a brief summary of the focal points of your essay. Concise as it is, you must take into consideration that in writing your abstract you must elaborate on the major themes of your research topic, which includes the relevant research questions, the participants involved in the research, and the methods, techniques, approaches, and procedures used, and the conclusions. As with the rest of your text, the abstract is double-spaced, and should only consist of a single paragraph and occupy one page, as with this example:

 

What is it that makes language powerful? This paper uses the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and libidinal investment to explain how rhetoric compels us and how it can effect change. Synthesizing the ideas of theorists as diverse as Aristotle and Althusser, Kohut and Derrida, this essay explores the relationships between language and subjectivity. The works of Joseph Conrad, James Baldwin, William Faulkner, Arthur Miller, D.H. Lawrence, George Orwell, and others are the basis of this analysis of the rhetorical resources of literary language. Using Freudian, post-Freudian, and Lacanian theory, this essay investigates the power by means of which literary texts are able to fashion new and distinctly rhetorical experiences for readers. It attempts to show how the production of literary texts begins and ends with narcissistic self-love poem, and how the reader’s interest in these texts is directed by libidinal investment.

 

Below is a list of APA format examples for books and other commonly used print sources and references:

.           Adler, M. (1985). Ten Philosophical Mistakes. New York: Collier.

Barnett, R. E., ed. (1989). The Rights Retained by the People. Fairfax, Virginia: George Mason University Press.

Friedman, D. The Machinery of Freedom (2nd ed.). La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1989.

Gladstein, M. R. (1984). The Ayn Rand Companion. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.

Mencken, H. L. (1982). The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Torrance, California: Noontide Press.

Remember to list your APA citations and references alphabetically by the authors’ last names.

APA Bibliography

In scholarly writing and publishing, the APA bibliography pertains to the alphabetized list of all the sources and references that have been used for consultation in the research process, including the in-text citations and other resource materials related to the work. Because its purpose is to lead readers to other works for verification and further reading, the APA bibliography appears at the end of a book or a document.

If you’re a student tasked to write a dissertation, a thesis paper, or an essay, you will be required by your instructor to use the APA format in organizing your paper and to include an APA bibliography. This page includes all of the sources, references, and others works that you have consulted for research to write your paper, and aside from leading your readers to other works related to your paper, its purpose is to give credit to the original sources of ideas that you made use of in presenting your claims and arguments in your essay.

For books and other similar print sources, the following bibliography format is normally structured as the following:

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year Published). Title of Specific Work. City: Publisher.

For example:

Bannett, E. T. (1989). Structuralism and the Logic of Dissent. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Edelson, M. (1984). Language and the Interpretation of Psychoanalysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ragland-Sullivan, E. (1986). Jacques Lacan and the Philosophy of Psychoanalysis. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

As exemplified in the above examples, in providing the author’s name of a particular work, the APA format endorses the convention of providing the author’s last name first, followed by his first and middle initials. Enclosed in parentheses and followed by a period, the name is then followed by the year of publication. After which the complete title of the work is listed in italics and by using standard capitalization. A colon separates the location of the publisher and the name of the publisher, which should be the last element that ends the citation.

In cases where a book or a work is a translation into another language, simply insert the name of the translator and the descriptor “Trans.” and enclose within parentheses, as in the following example:

Derrida, J. (1976). Of Grammatology. (G. Spivak, Trans.). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Should you require further assistance in formatting your sources and references in the APA format, it is advisable to use a bibliography maker, which is designed to automatically generate your citations.

Helping Kids with Grammar: The Predicate

The sentence is one of the most basic concepts in grammar which students learn while they were in primary school. Perhaps, everyone already knows that a sentence is made up of related words, and is considered to be the most basic grammatical unit which expresses a complete thought. But did you know the different parts of a sentence? This article will define one of the most common parts, which is the predicate, and provide some examples that you can use to better understand the concept.

What is a Predicate?

Before explaining what a predicate is, another part of a sentence will be first discussed. This related concept is the subject. Simply put, a subject refers to what or whom the sentence is all about, and it comes in the form of a noun or a pronoun.

The predicate, on the other hand, is the part of the sentence which says something or provides additional information about the subject in the sentence. Its main component is the verb, therefore, it either states the action or the state of being of the subject.

Examples:

  • The Hubble Space Telescope is one of the most powerful space telescopes ever made.

 

The italicized part, which is the predicate in this sample sentence, provides additional information about “the Hubble Space Telescope.” (main verb= is)

 

  • Daniel gazed across the starry night sky.

 

In this example, the predicate “gazed across the starry night sky” states the action of the subject “Daniel.” (main verb= gazed)

 

  • She tore the note and threw it in the trash bin.

 

Just like in the previous example, the italicized compound predicate tells the actions of the subject (she). (main verbs= tore; threw)

 

  • Renz and Irish are always seen together.

 

The predicate “are always seen together” says something about the compound subject “Renz and Irish.” (main verb= are)

  • Daenerys Targaryen is so badass.

 

The predicate “is so badass” tells the state of being of the subject “Daenerys Targaryen.” (main verb= is)

 

  • I played computer games and watched movies over the weekend.

 

The compound predicate in the sentence above is composed of the italicized words, and the subject is the pronoun “I.” (main verbs= played; watched)

Important Terms to Remember

  1. 1.       Simple Predicate-  the simple predicate consists of only the main verb.

 

Example: Drew cooked lasagna for everyone.

 

The simple predicate in this example is the underlined verb.

 

  1. 2.       Complete Predicate- unlike the simple predicate, the complete predicate consists of the main verb and all the other words that modify it.

 

Example: Irina is indeed a beautiful lady.

 

                    The simple predicate in this sentence is the word “is,” but if you’re asked to identify the complete predicate, you must include all the words that come after it.

 

  1. 3.       Compound Predicate- the compound predicate consists of two or more predicates joined together by a conjunction.

 

Example: The teenage boy looked around and pocketed a can of beer.

 

In this sample sentence, the compound predicate consists of two predicates (red and blue) joined together by the conjunction “and.”

 

  1. 4.       Predicate Modifier- as the name suggests, this simply modifies the predicate or the action. The predicate modifier tells how, when, or why the action in the sentence occurred.

 

Example: The homeless man drank the coffee in a hurry.

The underlined predicate modifier tells how the homeless man drank the coffee.

Final Thoughts

The predicate is one of the most basic requirements for a group of words to be considered a sentence. Without a predicate, a sentence would never exist. Although this seems too simple and a thorough discussion is not required, a deep understanding of this concept is actually very important for you to adequately express your thoughts and emotions in everyday speech and in writing.

What is an APA Reference Page

In scholarly writing and publishing, certain academic conventions and copyright laws require students, professors, and writers to acknowledge all of the citation sources of ideas and information that they use in preparing their written work. The American Psychological Association (APA), an organization of psychologists, medical researchers and practitioners, established and developed the APA format for structuring essays and research papers, and the APA citation style for documenting citation sources into formatted APA references. Continue reading

Creating a Bibliography

In the APA style and the MLA style, a bibliography pertains to the organized list of all the sources and references that you have used in writing your essay or research paper, including in-text citations and other materials relevant to work that may interest your readers. Because it leads readers to other works for further reading, the bibliography appears at the end of your document. Continue reading

MLA Interview Citation

In MLA citations, interviews commonly fall into two categories: published and unpublished interviews that may appear in print or broadcast over electronic media. Other interviews may also appear in similar formats, such as in emails or as web documents. MLA interview citations are specific formats established by the Modern Language Association, or MLA, to properly cite interviews, such as live, face-to-face, telephone and email conversations used for your research paper. Continue reading