APA Format Example: APA Title Page, Abstract and Reference Page

One distinguishing factor that sets the APA style apart from other styles is the inclusion of the APA title page and abstract page.Additionally, the list of APA citation entries located at the end of your paper is labeled as references.

The APA title page is located at the beginning of your document, and it contains the title of your paper, your complete name, and the title of your school, college, or institutional affiliation. The page header, or running head, is aligned to the left margin, while the page number is aligned to the right. Both must be typed at the top of the page. For example:


Narcissism and the Literary Libido                                                                                                  1


Narcissism and the Literary Libido: Rhetoric

Text, and Subjectivity

Marshall W. Alcorn

George Washington University


            The next page is your abstract, and between 150 and 250 words it consists of a brief summary of the focal points of your essay. Concise as it is, you must take into consideration that in writing your abstract you must elaborate on the major themes of your research topic, which includes the relevant research questions, the participants involved in the research, and the methods, techniques, approaches, and procedures used, and the conclusions. As with the rest of your text, the abstract is double-spaced, and should only consist of a single paragraph and occupy one page, as with this example:


What is it that makes language powerful? This paper uses the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and libidinal investment to explain how rhetoric compels us and how it can effect change. Synthesizing the ideas of theorists as diverse as Aristotle and Althusser, Kohut and Derrida, this essay explores the relationships between language and subjectivity. The works of Joseph Conrad, James Baldwin, William Faulkner, Arthur Miller, D.H. Lawrence, George Orwell, and others are the basis of this analysis of the rhetorical resources of literary language. Using Freudian, post-Freudian, and Lacanian theory, this essay investigates the power by means of which literary texts are able to fashion new and distinctly rhetorical experiences for readers. It attempts to show how the production of literary texts begins and ends with narcissistic self-love poem, and how the reader’s interest in these texts is directed by libidinal investment.


Below is a list of APA format examples for books and other commonly used print sources and references:

.           Adler, M. (1985). Ten Philosophical Mistakes. New York: Collier.

Barnett, R. E., ed. (1989). The Rights Retained by the People. Fairfax, Virginia: George Mason University Press.

Friedman, D. The Machinery of Freedom (2nd ed.). La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1989.

Gladstein, M. R. (1984). The Ayn Rand Companion. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.

Mencken, H. L. (1982). The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Torrance, California: Noontide Press.

Remember to list your APA citations and references alphabetically by the authors’ last names.

APA Bibliography

In scholarly writing and publishing, the APA bibliography pertains to the alphabetized list of all the sources and references that have been used for consultation in the research process, including the in-text citations and other resource materials related to the work. Because its purpose is to lead readers to other works for verification and further reading, the APA bibliography appears at the end of a book or a document.

If you’re a student tasked to write a dissertation, a thesis paper, or an essay, you will be required by your instructor to use the APA format in organizing your paper and to include an APA bibliography. This page includes all of the sources, references, and others works that you have consulted for research to write your paper, and aside from leading your readers to other works related to your paper, its purpose is to give credit to the original sources of ideas that you made use of in presenting your claims and arguments in your essay.

For books and other similar print sources, the following bibliography format is normally structured as the following:

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year Published). Title of Specific Work. City: Publisher.

For example:

Bannett, E. T. (1989). Structuralism and the Logic of Dissent. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Edelson, M. (1984). Language and the Interpretation of Psychoanalysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ragland-Sullivan, E. (1986). Jacques Lacan and the Philosophy of Psychoanalysis. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

As exemplified in the above examples, in providing the author’s name of a particular work, the APA format endorses the convention of providing the author’s last name first, followed by his first and middle initials. Enclosed in parentheses and followed by a period, the name is then followed by the year of publication. After which the complete title of the work is listed in italics and by using standard capitalization. A colon separates the location of the publisher and the name of the publisher, which should be the last element that ends the citation.

In cases where a book or a work is a translation into another language, simply insert the name of the translator and the descriptor “Trans.” and enclose within parentheses, as in the following example:

Derrida, J. (1976). Of Grammatology. (G. Spivak, Trans.). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Should you require further assistance in formatting your sources and references in the APA format, it is advisable to use a bibliography maker, which is designed to automatically generate your citations.

What is an APA Reference Page

In scholarly writing and publishing, certain academic conventions and copyright laws require students, professors, and writers to acknowledge all of the citation sources of ideas and information that they use in preparing their written work. The American Psychological Association (APA), an organization of psychologists, medical researchers and practitioners, established and developed the APA format for structuring essays and research papers, and the APA citation style for documenting citation sources into formatted APA references. Continue reading

Creating a Bibliography

In the APA style and the MLA style, a bibliography pertains to the organized list of all the sources and references that you have used in writing your essay or research paper, including in-text citations and other materials relevant to work that may interest your readers. Because it leads readers to other works for further reading, the bibliography appears at the end of your document. Continue reading

MLA Interview Citation

In MLA citations, interviews commonly fall into two categories: published and unpublished interviews that may appear in print or broadcast over electronic media. Other interviews may also appear in similar formats, such as in emails or as web documents. MLA interview citations are specific formats established by the Modern Language Association, or MLA, to properly cite interviews, such as live, face-to-face, telephone and email conversations used for your research paper. Continue reading